The Economist - April 28 - 4 May 2012

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Sep 9, Mix and match brings healthcare manufact Sep 9, Luanda met meeting releases consensus ra Sep 9, Recurring attacks of non-nationals of Af Sep 6, National HPV screening programme to figh Sep 6, Fortnightly weather overview and short-t Sep 6, Death, Detention and Disappearance — law Sep 5, Real cost of producing an ounce of gold Sep 5, Health Ministry, partners to launch comm Sep 5, Cabinet announces new allowable seal har Sep 5, Computicket slammed for dominating local Sep 5, Payment Association, partners to launch Sep 4, Hundreds of people set to benefit from p To view please contact Mrs Don Camm.

Businesswoman Latest. Namibian Businesswoman of the Year Consistency, hard work, dedication and t Nedbank, Lionesses of Africa host fourth Economist Businesswomen Club looking for Be your own Wonder Woman — perhaps you a Chief judicial administrator joins board You are the perfect brand…Make it Nominations open for Namibian Businesswo Far north property volumes jump by more Merck Foundation calls for applications Wellness of the mind and soul drives psy Women in business encouraged to be authe SADC missing target on women empowerment Good Morning, having a good week?

Women entrepreneurs roar at the 2nd Lion From the dazzling lights of high fashion Clausthaler promotional competition wins A journey is not straightforward but eve Local bakery gets financial boost from K Mwiya to head Chamber of Commerce. Economist Businesswomen innovative busin Do not delay your journey to financial f Council of Ministers reviews gender prog Empowering businesswomen through network What is the role of the marketing depart Women, girls continue to be less engaged Telecom announces its continued support Katuka mentorship programme completes fi Judiciary names process improver as firs UN Women to zoom in on public services, World Bank Chief Executive stresses impo All-female crew makes history piloting a Women and youth to take centre stage at Not sure which strategic direction to ta Gender violence high on activism campaig Coordination among micro enterprise serv Female entrepreneurs, professionals and Katuka mentees receive certificates Africa Women Conference set for Windhoek.

Women must redesign the table, and not j Martins-Hausiku encourages women to run Helping African companies to get serious Confronting sexual violence in colleges Foundation for the advancement of women Head of Private Banking says there is mu Put a dent in the universe — be DI More than Persian carpets at exclusi Katuka mentorship helps young women conq Ladima Foundation launches database for Skin Care Science- Businesswomen schoole Young women empowered by Trustco — Gender violence tops agenda at ordinary Outlook Inspiration celebrates loca Northern Businesswomen Conference marks Women in Business financial package intr Young entrepreneur helps people shed exc Being in the water can be very lonely — The aim is not to retire, but to do what Blue bank seeks new Women of Excellence Imagine making a statement to the police Sign the BreakFree pledge and be remind All women motivated not to let stress ta Katuka Mentorship programme essential in Married or single: how to survive as a f Telecom Namibia honours Namibian Busines Katuka Mentorship Programme wraps up for Au Revoir Baronice, welcome to the bridg Businesswoman Gala Banquet Picture Galle Young Businesswoman — lawyer with Women of Substance make their mark in th Namibian Businesswoman Awards reach stun Here are the semi-finalists for the Reserve your seats for the Namibian Click here to see the Nominees for the N Businesswomen Conference Ongwediva 10 Au Businesswoman of the Year attend Global Headlines Latest.

Decelerating growth in money supply points to slower economic growth by Donald Matthys Sep 4, Meatco confident on post-Brexit beef exports — offers no tangible contingency plan for disruptions by Donald Matthys Aug 15, Extra Latest. Business and Intellectual Prop Sep 24, Young leaders groomed in profe Sep 23, Statistics Agency launches Cen Indian warship makes port call Sep 19, Rundu to host National Clean u Sep 18, Local young environmentalists, BIPA, stakeholders to review t Sep 17, Finnish Fund applications for Benchmark trustee sees jump in Sep 16, Central Bank to host 20th annu BTG Namibia enters strategic p Sep 12, Welwitschias off to Japan for Duinesig High School crowned q Sep 10, Nationwide vishing awareness c Founding president mourns Muga Sep 9, Poiyah Media earns nomination City of Windhoek sign friendsh Sep 6, City of Windhoek approves buil Engineers mobilise own ranks t Sep 4, Fuel prices remain unchanged i Doyen of Namibian short-term i Sep 3, If you need to go somewhere, L Religious leaders from across Sep 2, Commonwealth looking for the Y Aug 30, Aug 29, Namibia considers withdrawing Aug 23, NamPower engages communities w Aug 22, Hands engineered to mould mast Namport relocates export Aug 21, Zero maintenance fees account Aug 20, Local Economist to zoom in on Aug 19, Liberty Namibia launches Mind Aug 16, Regional flagship television n Aug 14, Swaco Group keeps up its long Aug 12, Aug 9, Aug 8, The Story of Kangaroo Justice Aug 7, Aug 6, Aug 5, August fuel prices remain unch Aug 2, Autoshow captures Windhoek, mo Aug 1, Jul 31, Mastermind behind the establis Jul 30, SA land and property developer Jul 26, New undertaking for Atlas of N Jul 25, MTC seeks to knock-out gender Jul 24, Only one Namibian conservation Jul 23, Air Namibia to increase flight A fine range of whiskies for s Jul 22, African Union adopts its first Jul 18, Endresen succeeds Nygaard as D Jul 16, Namibia, Angola agree to redou Jul 15, Reinsurance Corporation fulfil Jul 12, Jul 11, Jul 10, Property Expo to engage local Jul 9, Namibia-Angola Joint Commissio Jul 8, Jul 5, Jul 4, Personal financial wellness de Jul 3, Cheques written off as a payme Jul 1, Fuel prices stay put this mont Jun 28, Expert says Namibia is the bes Jun 26, Upcoming Economic Summit expec Jun 25, Hospitality industry recognise Jun 24, Jun 21, Corporates join fight against Jun 20, Political factions warned agai Jun 19, Rebranded Fleet Services compa Jun 18, Stanford Business School launc Jun 17, Headline inflation down, core Jun 14, Olympic channel content on dig Jun 13, Schlettwein in Equatorial Guin Jun 12, Government moves to formalise Jun 11, Cheetah Conservation Fund rece Jun 10, Pilot public talk to unpack th Jun 7, Research tool for drought miti Jun 6, Reigning Miss Namibia, experts Jun 5, Import ban on mahangu, white m Jun 4, Life, if lived well, is long e We fervently believe that only Jun 3, India donates 1, metric ton Fuel prices to increase in Jun May 31, MVA Fund cares also for soft d May 30, May 29, May 27, Effective financial planning t May 24, Jamalife Helpers Global yet an May 23, Retrenched Breweries computers May 22, Bank of Namibia clarifies exch May 21, May 20, Former Vice President Iyambo d Maiden workshop focusing on ma May 17, Cute kitties and poochies try Face2Heart looking for 20 crea May 16, One more safety feature to kee May 15, Windhoek City fathers to enfor May 14, Quest to find top cattle produ May 13, Seminar focused on the enhance May 10, May 7, Government seeks to deepen tra May 6, Fuel prices to increase in May Apr 30, Apr 29, Pop-up networking session for Apr 26, Apr 24, Namibia opens visa processing Apr 18, Develop your speaking and pres Apr 17, Indonesians in Namibia cast ge Apr 16, Central Bank declares Longrich Apr 15, Apr 12, Social investment backs school Apr 11, Kings, Queens, Princes and Pri Apr 9, Continental communications net Apr 4, Apr 1, Ten players picked for interna Mar 29, Qualifications Authority launc Mar 27, Continental free trade area wi Mar 26, Namibia fails to make it to th Mar 22, Imposter scam resurfaces- FNB Mar 20, Challenges, opportunities and Science commission fills in re Mar 19, Kenyan President to grace 29th Mar 14, Schlettwein encourages investm Mar 12, Mar 11, Mar 8, Geingob to deliver speech at I Mar 1, Retirement Fund Solutions beat Feb 28, New DRC President to make maid Feb 26, Namibia, Ghana to strengthen c Feb 25, Local law enforcers briefed on Feb 22, Geingob welcomes new Ambassado Feb 21, SADC delegates call on sustain Feb 20, Not all heroes wear capes — MT Feb 18, Ever heard of an affordability Feb 15, Power imports increase in Book pays tribute to early con Feb 13, Von Holtz gathers information Feb 12, Obituary for Hanno Rumpf — in Feb 11, Workers Union at loggerheads w Feb 8, Telecom to cut off unpaid acco The same YouGov survey found that one in eight people kept paying for over four months before finally getting around to cancelling.

Publications by Gad Levanon, Ph.D.

One business has recently seen an opportunity to help people deal with this problem. It works in the following way. When customers download the app, they receive a new credit card number and a false name. Although Do Not Pay register the card details to their own business, the customer can use the information to sign up for a free trial of a good or service.

Pursuing inspiring leadership

In effect, Do Not Pay acts as an intermediary between the firm offering the promotion and the user. Once the free trial period ends, the app automatically cancels the subscription. Importantly, the new credit card details only work when someone signs up for a free trial. Consumers cannot use it to purchase any other products. Obviously one major drawback to the app is that a consumer would have to sign up again with their own personal credit card if they wanted to continue to use the service after the free trial ends.

Businesses may also try to block the use of Do Not Pay credit card numbers for their services. It will be interesting to see if other businesses come up with interesting ways of helping us to deal with sludge. Dark Petterns Questions Give three different examples of nudges. How do these traditional approaches differ from nudge? Identify some biases from behavioural economics that might help to explain why so many people fail to cancel subscriptions once a free trial period ends. Choose two other types of dark pattern and explain how they might prevent people from making decisions that maximise their own welfare.

Many students also study for a masters degree. But undergraduates can borrow less. Most students do some paid work during their studies to make up the difference or rely on parents contributing. Parental contributions mean that students from poor families end up owing more. According to a Guardian article :. Race is a huge factor. After graduation, the debt gap continues to widen. Most of the Democratic candidates are promising to address student fees and debt.

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Student debt, they claim, places an unfair burden on the younger generation and makes it hard for people to buy a house, or car or other major consumer durables. This also has a dampening effect on aggregate demand. The most radical proposal comes from Bernie Sanders. He has vowed, if elected, to abolish student fees and to cancel all undergraduate and graduate debt of all Americans. Although most politicians and commentators agree that the USA has a serious problem of student debt, there is little agreement on what, if anything, to do about it. There are already a number of ways in which student debt can be written off or reduced.

For example, if you work in the public sector for more than 10 years, remaining debt will be cancelled. However, none of the existing schemes is as radical as that being proposed by many Democrats. The first is the sheer cost. What is more, making student tuition free would place a huge ongoing burden on government finances.

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  • Bernie Sanders proposes introducing a financial transactions tax on stock trading. He argues that the public bailed out the financial sector in and that it is now the turn of the financial sector to come to the aid of students and graduates. The other type of criticism concerns the incentive effects of the proposal. The core of the criticism is that loan forgiveness involves moral hazard.

    The argument is that cancelling debt, or the promise to do so, encourages people to take on more debt. Generally, moral hazard occurs when people are protected from the consequences of their actions and are thus encouraged to make riskier decisions.

    Gad Levanon, Ph.D.

    For example, if you are ensured against theft, you may be less careful with your belongings. As the Orange County Register article linked below states:. If the taxpayers pay the debts of everyone with outstanding student loans, how will that affect the decisions made by current students thinking about their choices for financing higher education?

    Borrow as much as you can and wait for the debt to be canceled during the next presidential primary campaign? Not only would more students be encouraged to go to college, but they would be encouraged to apply for more costly courses if they were free. Universities would be encouraged to exaggerate their costs to warrant higher fees charged to the government.

    The government federal, state or local would have to be very careful in auditing courses to ensure costs were genuine. Universities could end up being squeezed for finance as government may try to cut payments by claiming that courses were overpriced.

    Christina Romer| Department of Economics

    Even if fees were not abolished, cancelling debts would encourage students to take on larger debt, if that was to be cleared at some point in the future. What is more, students or their parents who could afford to pay, would choose to borrow the money instead. But many countries do have free or highly subsidised higher education. Universities are given grants which are designed to reflect fair costs. Assess the arguments against abolishing or substantially reducing student fees. Assess the arguments for writing off or substantially reducing student debt.


    Assess the arguments against writing off or substantially reducing student debt. If it were decided to cancel student debt, would it be fair to pay students back for any debt they had already paid off? They then rely on a process from earlier research, which selects "1, phrases based on the number of times these phrases appear in the text of the Congressional Record, applying statistical methods to identify phrases that separate Democratic representatives from Republican representatives, under the model that each group speaks to its respective constituents with a distinct set of coded language.

    In brief, we ask whether a given Wikipedia article uses phrases favored more by Republican members or by Democratic members of Congress. For the 28, article they can evaluate, they find on average a Democratic slant. At the same time, many seemingly controversial topics such as foreign policy, war and peace, and abortion are centered at zero [that is, no slant]. This gives them , entries, but again many of them don't use any of the key phrases, leaving , that do include some of those phrases. They find that older revisions tend to lean more Democratic, while newer revisions and newer entries are more balanced.

    Wikipedia is in many ways an extraordinary success. Greenstein and Zhu write: "As the largest wiki ever and one of the most popular websites in the world, Wikipedia accommodates a skyrocketing number of contributors and readers.

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    At the end of , after approximately a decade of production, Wikipedia supports 3. Every ranking places Wikipedia as the fifth or sixth most visited website in the United States, behind Google, Facebook, Yahoo! In most countries with unrestricted and developed Internet sectors, Wikipedia ranks among the top ten websites visited by households. Instead, it can serve as a useful shortcut to finding links to other sources. But the Greenstein and Zhu evidence suggests that Wikipedia on average has found a reasonable level of political balance--although you may need to read a few related entries on the same broad topic to achieve it.

    Thursday, May 24, Lemley on Fixing the U. Patent System. Lemley has an interesting starting point for thinking about the U. They claim technologies that ultimately failed in the marketplace. They protect a firm from competitors who for other reasons failed to materialize.

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    They were acquired merely to signal investors that the relevant firm has intellectual assets. Or they were lottery tickets filed on the speculation that a given industry or invention would take off. Those patents will never be licensed, never be asserted in negotiation or litigation, and thus spending additional resources to examine them would yield few benefits. They award legal rights that are far broader than what their relevant inventors actually invented, and they do so with respect to technologies that turn out to be economically significant.

    Many Internet patents fall into this category. While some such Internet patents may be valid--someone did invent those things, after all--more often the people asserting the patents actually invented something much more modest. But they persuaded the Patent Office to give them rights that are broader than what they actually invented, imposing an implicit tax on consumers and thwarting truly innovative companies who do or would pioneer those fields.

    In essence, courts presume that the Patent Office has already done a good job of screening out bad patents. Rather, it is that the Patent Office issues a small but worrisome number of economically significant bad patents and those patents enjoy a strong, but undeserved, presumption of validity.