Please enable cookies in your browser to get the full Trove experience. Skip to content Skip to search. Published Exeter [England] : Learning Matters, Language English View all editions Prev Next edition 1 of 2. Language and languages -- Study and teaching Primary -- Great Britain. Language and languages -- Study and teaching Elementary -- Great Britain.
Great Britain. Summary "Primary languages are to be an entitlement for all pupils in KS2 from There is therefore a need to ensure that trainee primary teachers are equipped with the required skills, knowledge and understanding to contribute to this process. This book supports both specialists and non-specialist trainees who may need to deliver languages across the curriculum, providing them with a clear understanding of the methodology and helping them to develop linguistic competence and confidence. Contents 1. Setting the scene 2. Is younger better? Towards a rationale for teaching and learning languages in primary schools in England 3.
Finding your way around the Key Stage 2 Framework for Languages 4. Addressing the Oracy and Literacy strands 5. Putting the Key Stage 2 Framework into practice: starting to plan 6. Exploring the notion of Intercultural Understanding 7. Continuity and progression, transfer and transition 8. Implementing the languages entitlement: decisions for Primary Languages Co-ordinators 9. Looking forward: becoming a Primary Languages professional App.
Intercultural Understanding - suggestions for classroom activities App.
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Developing your own Intercultural Understanding App. Guidelines for teaching grammar and KAL App. European Language Portfolio activity App. A new paradigm for languages App. Useful website and links. Notes "Incorporating the new standards"--Front cover. Formerly CIP. Includes bibliographical references p. Dewey Number View online Borrow Buy Freely available Show 0 more links Set up My libraries How do I set up "My libraries"? Edith Cowan University Library. La Trobe University Library. The fact that the effective teachers of literacy were able to do this consistently again implies an extensive knowledge base in literacy.
Again it was evident, however, that the content knowledge these teachers referred to was always firmly embedded in their analysis of what their children could do and should now be doing. During the classroom observations we highlighted the ways teachers discussed literacy with their children and made careful note of the linguistic terminology used in presenting literacy lessons. The variety of terminology used was clearly circumscribed and included the following terms:.
Although the effective teachers did not appear to use a wider variety of terms about language than the validation sample in an individual lesson, they did use them differently. The effective teachers not only defined terms that they used but offered more examples of the item. They often collected examples and discussed the function of the word before offering a definition. They chose a variety of examples which illustrated the definition, rather than repeating formulaic definitions such as "a verb is a doing word" and asked children to supply examples of their own.
The effective teachers were also observed to ask the children to explain terms to them at a number of points in the session, whereas the teachers in the validation sample did not do this in most cases. It appeared that the effective teachers had a greater depth of knowledge than the validation teachers and were able to use a variety of representations of particular ideas. In addition to using standard linguistic terminology the effective teachers were observed to pick out and discuss elements of language, eliciting functional definitions of word types, parts of words or sentence organisation, without using a standard linguistic definition.
For instance, a teacher introducing the idea of descriptive writing as part of a narrative opening drew up a list of the nouns and adjectives in the example passage. These were sorted by the children in terms of their function, without using the label noun or adjective. In this chapter we have presented details about our findings about teachers' content knowledge in literacy.
We have been concerned to point out the complexity of this issue. As far as we know, this is the first research study to attempt such an exploration of literacy subject knowledge and, perhaps unsurprisingly, our findings do not altogether support the hypotheses we generated in this area. In particular, we failed to find any real separation in effective teachers between content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge in literacy. It seems to us that the effective teachers of literacy 'know' their subject in quite a special way which itself has many implications for initial training and continuing professional development.
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The main findings of our research into teachers' subject knowledge of literacy suggest several important conclusions. Studies of teacher beliefs e. Munby, ; Nespor, ; Richardson, suggest that the extent to which teachers adopt new instructional practices in their classrooms relates closely to the degree of alignment between their personal beliefs and the assumptions underlying particular innovatory teaching programmes or methods.
Such studies have led to a strong feeling that an understanding of teachers' beliefs is important in understanding teachers' current classroom practices and in designing professional development programmes which seek to change those practices. If beliefs are implicit they may not be articulated, and as beliefs do not necessarily transfer into practice, they cannot be inferred directly from practice.
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These authors did argue, however, that their research was suggesting that "despite atheoretical statements, teachers are theoretical in their instructional approach" p. Although teachers' beliefs are thought to be important in effective teaching the existing literature on teaching is weak in terms of evidence about the ways beliefs link to practice, especially in the teaching of literacy. We deliberately set out to investigate this link and our working hypothesis was that the effective teachers of literacy would have developed a coherent set of beliefs about the nature and the learning of literacy which played a guiding role in their selection of teaching approaches.
Thus our line of inquiry focused on the consistency between teachers' beliefs about literacy teaching, the teaching activities they said they valued, and those activities they actually used. Our findings, in summary, indicate that, in reporting their views about the teaching of reading and writing, the effective teachers of literacy were much more likely than teachers in the validation sample to place a high priority on purpose, communication and composition. They also emphasised the importance of connecting word level, sentence level and text level aspects of reading and writing in this construction.
The effective teachers generally identified teaching activities that were consistent with their stated beliefs about the teaching of literacy. From our observations of the ways they translated their beliefs into classroom practice it was clear that these teachers also made explicit to their pupils the connections between word, sentence and text level aspects.
We used two main approaches in order to investigate teachers' beliefs about the teaching of literacy. Firstly, as part of the questionnaire administered to both the effective teacher sample and the validation sample, teachers were asked to complete an orientation profile to determine their reported beliefs. We also observed the practice of a number of teachers in both samples, interviewed them about this practice and asked them to complete an attitude scale about literacy learning.
Our aim was thus to check reported beliefs against the reality of classroom action to give a more valid account of the beliefs of these teachers. Our hypothesis was that the more effective teachers would have more fully developed practical theories about teaching literacy which would govern their actions in classrooms at a strategic level.
Such practical theories or beliefs are difficult to research because they operate implicitly and create tendencies to act in certain ways rather than direct certainties about specific actions. We found the concept of orientation useful as a way of thinking about teachers' beliefs or theories. It helped us to consider both the different degrees to which teachers were drawn to specific ideas and the extent to which such patterns of belief or theory were consistent both internally and with teachers' statements about their teaching strategies and their work in classrooms.
We used and adapted a model of orientation originally developed by Deford to try to identify the major patterns in orientation. Deford's model provides a series of statements which can be used to analyse the relative emphasis which teachers give to different beliefs about teaching reading. In adapting Deford's model we:.
In describing our findings we need to describe the building blocks of our analysis step by step but the significance of each element is only clear when the whole picture is assembled. It is therefore crucial not to take individual elements out of context.
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For example, although the teachers whose pupils made good learning gains, the effective teachers, did not express a strong orientation towards phonics, emphasising instead the importance of communicating and composing meaning, they did in fact teach phonics systematically. Their orientation towards communication led them to approach phonics as an important means to an end rather than as an end in itself. There were some significant differences in the beliefs about literacy held by the effective teachers of literacy and by the validation sample teachers. These can be summarised as:.
These differences were much more pronounced in beliefs about the teaching of reading than about the teaching of writing, but it seems that, in general, the effective teachers felt more strongly that in literacy teaching composition and communication were prime goals whereas teaching phonics and words were important means to that end. Although the validation teachers did not reject communication and composition as a goal in literacy, they were more inclined to place prime emphasis on word level aspects of literacy which they saw as ends in themselves.
Our analysis also suggests that the effective teachers of literacy had rather more coherent belief systems about the teaching of literacy than did the teachers in the validation sample.
enter They were less inclined to be contradictory in the statements they said they supported. A full presentation of the evidence underpinning these conclusions is given in Appendix 3. Teachers' responses to statements about teaching activities showed a similar pattern to responses to attitude statements about literacy teaching. In teaching reading, the effective teachers of literacy rated favourably teaching activities that focus upon communication and composition.
They were less likely than the validation teachers to rate favourably activities such as "Children completing phonic worksheets and exercises" and "Using flashcards to teach children to read words by sight", activities which, while part of a balanced reading programme, do not in themselves focus upon the understanding of text. The effective teachers were very positive about the activity, 'Teaching letter sounds as a way of helping children build up words'.