Weight: Gms. SKU: IChecker is a new digital resource, available to students with the Workbook. It contains all Workbook audio and practice tests to help students identify areas where they need more study. To learn more, see the iChecker tab. A three-level English grammar practice series for the classroom or self-study with clear explanations and lots of extra practice. Publisher Date By John Eastwood. More teacher support for mixed-ability classes.
Only 1 left. Edition: 2nd Revised edition List Price: -. By Tom Hutchinson, Lynda Edwards. Project third edition is a five-level primary and secondary English course, trusted by teachers and loved by students worldwide. Student's Book with cd-ROM. Oxford Book. This Book For.
Oxford Word Magic ISBN 019431667x Isbn-13 9780194316675
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By Eileen Flannigan. New grammar is explained at the beginning of each unit. Students can then be more confident of using the language. Item Information:Author : Wilson.
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Oxford word skills intermediate
Africans took English sounds and with variation in tempo, rhythm, tone and timbre transformed them. Pushing English in the direction of their more tonal African languages, new sense evolved as well as new sounds. Play reinforced a tendency to draw out the music buried within English - rhyme, interpolation of African syllables and words or just plain scat-singing nonsense marked this African stylization of the speech of their captors.
The process parallels the magic Billie Holiday performed on the banal tunes and lyrics of Tin Pan Alley. The testimony of contemporary Africans who speak Wes Cos or Kriol or pidgin, West Indian fancy talk, the oral narratives of ex-slaves, contemporary narratives collected from prisons, bars, street corners and the workingplace, as well as rap records and the folk-derived forms of Afro-American music, all testify to the fact that black speech is not simply faulty English but a witness to a much deeper fault, a crack running below the surface, a fatal flaw in the forms and pretensions of so-called civilized language.
The historical, outside approach to defining Afro-American speech emphasizes the capacity to speak a second, new language, but what is just as important as capacity is desire and will.
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And will resides inside an individual. Slaves spoke as much or as little as they chose to speak. In this sense, silence is a logical extreme of play, deadly serious play with standard English, signifying that we ain't playing no more. Pretense is ended. There's nothing more to say. The distance between your version of reality and mine admits no possibility of mutual intelligibility. Perhaps that's why a black person who's quiet in the company of whites is often perceived by whites as stupid or sullen or dangerous. Obviously it would not have been to the slave's advantage to reveal to his master his full capacity, whether of language, intelligence or ability to work.
The exercise of will, then as today, is a variable difficult to determine from the outside, yet clearly significant if one wishes to understand how, why and when blacks use different registers of English. Most black writers are impressively fluent in a variety of dialects: black, white, genteel, literate and many registers in between.
Yet just as the slave's oral pidgin English was English transformed by his original African language and the master-slave relationship, the black writer's English, if examined closely, will reveal its sources in Afro-American culture, a culture that has been generated partly as a response to racism. If he wished to survive, the slave was forced to learn the sounds and syntax of English.
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If black writers wish to publish, we have to learn the grammars of 20th-century American culture and adjust our literate speech to their constraints: economic, political, moral, esthetic. Whatever individuality, whatever freedom of expression either writer or slave achieves can be illuminated by viewing what they say against the systemic net of restrictions designed to inhibit their voices. Recall that Billie Holiday's genius flourished in spite of the fact she received only third-rate songs to record, in spite of the fact that her style didn't fit audience expectations, in spite of the simplistic, sentimental lyrics of American popular music, in spite of racism and sexism.
The deep structures of African languages survived in the slaves' version of the new language enforced upon them. So too, in the case of Afro-American writing, an authentic prototypical back American self can shine forth in spite of the restrictions imposed upon this voice when it breaks into print. The terrible thing is that as writers or critics we are forced into certain kinds of choices, choices laden with values the writer doesn't necessarily hold.
A critic can argue, ''Wideman is a good writer; he uses Afro-American folklore, he knows this or that about his heritage and culture. Even if I've accomplished what the critic ascribes to me - and surely that is enough - there is still an implied, invidious comparison: ''O.
One thing for sure: it is a terrible bind. The historical problem is unavoidably there, and how you solve it creates a sort of ''out of the frying pan into the fire'' dilemma. There is an Afro-American tradition. There are Afro-American writers working right now; it makes sense to talk about us as a group. It is natural, enlightening, intelligent to approach the work that way, but at the same time, to do so perpetuates the whole wrongheaded notion of looking at things in terms of black and white, and in our culture this implies not simply a distinction, but black inferiority.
In academia, Mr. Dewy-Eyed Optimistic who is really Mr.
Turn-Them-Back in disguise believes that the purpose of Afro-American literature classes is remedial, a fine-tuning of the curriculum, and argues that the millennium will arrive when American literature classes include ''Invisible Man. It's not a question of making a little more room in the inn but tearing the old building down, letting the tenants know their losses are such that no one is assured of a place, that the notion of permanently owning a place is as defunct as the inn.