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Citations Publications citing this paper. Nazari , Bruce Halliday , Hadi Ostovan. Evaluation of the predacious mite Hemicheyletia wellsina Acari: Cheyletidae as a predator of arthropod pests of orchids Haleigh A. Ray , Marjorie A. Hexabdella persiaensis sp. A new species description of the acanthomus species group Acari: Podapolipidae: Eutarsopolipus , with keys to world species of the group Mohammad Tajodin , Hamidreza Hajiqanbar , Ali Asghar Talebi. References Publications referenced by this paper. If you have a Marketing Code please enter it below: Marketing Code: Please note that by ordering from Research and Markets you are agreeing to our Terms and Conditions at http.
Although, T. Due to morphological similarities between both T. The further investigations should be addressed to assess risks in South America. In present years an increase in E. Strategies for management of pest mites Chemical control: Mites population monitoring is a crucial step to make decisions about control however, by a threshold had not been established in all the producing areas 5 mainly in various countries in South America where chemical products are the most used strategy in strawberry and other crops. The strawberry traditional production systems are frequently characterized by high efficacy in pest control and consequently high-quality fruits.
Nevertheless, outbreaks of pest population and fruit with high residues of pesticides are common associated problems In this regard, selection of pesticides with low persistence and toxicity is tremendously imperative, however, this crucial step is hampered by a significantly low number of registered chemical products for strawberry pest control in South America The advances in developed miticides have been mainly related to the metabolic pathway in mites. Many of these have been used in strawberries with variable efficacy for the control of tetranychid and tarsonemid mites Table 1 , a very low proportion of them are currently traded and used in Ecuador.
Biological control : Most of the available information about biological control attempts is derived from studies in North America, Europe or Australia. Various phytoseiid mites species have been reported in association to T. Although in less numerous than phytoseiids, anystid mites have been also found feeding an average of 39 T. Biological control studies from South America have been carried out mainly in Brazil. The predatory mite P. Based on the results, authors suggested that P. Previously, Watanabe et al.
Results showed that both phytoseiid mite species reduced populations of T. Others Phytoseiidae species have been used in biological control of tetranychid mites on strawberry even when plants have been previously treated with pesticides.
Biology and ecology of trombidiid mites (Acari: Trombidioidea) | SpringerLink
Thus, Sato et al. Even when propargite was sprayed on the plants, 2 weeks after the first release, the population of N. Moreover, the reduction of T. This indicated the relevance of the use of a selective acaricide in association with predaceous mites when T. According to Solomon et al. Nevertheless, these predatory mites built up too slowly when feeding on the tarsonemid mite making difficult to control the pest. At the moment of this review no further information was found in this regard.
Botanical acaricides: Botanicals insecticides can play an important role in pest management for organic production mostly in minor areas crops although, after generalization of the usage of synthetic chemical insecticides, they have been relegated to a trivial position As defined by El-Wakeil 47 , botanical pesticides are naturally occurring chemicals extracted from plants and these natural pesticides are available as an alternative to synthetic chemical formulations.
The most used biopesticides include nicotine, rotenone, pyrethrum, plant essential oils and the synthetic derived such as pyrethroids, azadirachtin as well as potential new botanical products which show the most diverse mode of action including as competition with the neurotransmitter acetylcholine to disrupting the sodium and potassium ion exchange process However, the mode of action of some other botanical pesticides such as some essential oils remains not fully understood.
Moreover, in most of the cases pest control is made by application of botanical extracts it is difficult to pinpoint the exact modes of action In several previous studies, botanical pesticides have proved to be efficient to control mites feeding on strawberry plants. In Brazil, Vicentini et al. Camarosa were affected by the extract of citronella grass Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt ex Bor at different concentrations. Soto et al. Besides, authors also found that applications of neem product showed to be more selective to the predatory mite, P. In addition, Bernardi et al.
Although, azadirachtin has shown to be effective to control populations of the two-spotted spider mite in some cases, other species have proved higher effectiveness. Thus, Tephrosia voggeli Hook extract resulted to be more effective than neem oil against the two-spotted spider mite reared on strawberry plants cv.
Oso Grande Probably deguelin the major constituent tephrosin and three other minor rotenoids occurring in methyl acetate fractions of T. Based on the evidence from studies show that the use of ethanolic extract s of different plant species is a valuable tool for controlling T.
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Cultural strategies: In organic production cultural practices are important preventive strategies against pests and are the first phase in the management of arthropods and phytopathogens. Soil management including fertilization using organic amends as well as other cultural practices may be used to contribute to pest reduction in the field 54 , but also curative options must be available to reduce insects in the field when just preventive strategies are not enough to keep mite populations under damaging levels.
For example, strawberry planting material can be kept free of P. So far, plant resistance has not been used in cyclamen mite control.
However, some evidence has shown that some varieties have higher resistance levels to the cyclamen mite. Plant resistance in strawberry cultivars to mites: Although there is an increasing demand for certified food and free of pesticide residues the current conventional production models in agriculture are frequently based on high energy expenditure with pesticides and fertilizers.
Consequently, constant review of conventional methods in agriculture is required in order to ensure sustainability over time and to minimize consequences for man and the environment Fadini et al. According to El Titi et al. However, due to the restrictions on pesticide use or even the forbiddances of them at all because of high ecological risk. Resistant varieties should become the main objective in strawberry disease management Plants have constitutive resistance which is continuously expressed independently of the presence or action of herbivores and on the other hand, induced resistance which is expressed against herbivores only after the injury and may act directly on the herbivores and natural enemies 59 , Previous studies have demonstrated that the strawberry has constitutive and induced defense mechanism to attack spider mite 60 , In contrast, some strawberry cultivars can show no presence or low level of induced resistance.
IAC Campinas were altered by the pre-infestation suggesting that these results may be associated to lower level of induced resistance. In Brazil, Monteiro et al. Furthermore, according to Monteiro et al. As in other plants, morphological features of leaves are thought to affect herbivores In general, the presence of trichomes has been shown to be a mechanism of defense against herbivores and thus leaves with a major number of non-glandular trichomes are considered more resistant to herbivores due to mechanical restrictions Luczynski et al.
However, the density of non-glandular trichomes does not seem to be the key factor for the resistance of strawberry cultivars but rather, the presence of pre-formed glandular trichomes containing oxidative enzymes Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, Imbabura and Azuay contribute with a minor production. From , the national strawberry production rose to t.
However, after this period a tendency to decrease the area harvested and consequently fruit production was observed 71 Fig. Soon after strawberry exploitation was initiated in Tungurahua, damage by phytophagous mites also was evident and subsequent difficulties in the management of pest populations tended to increase due to mistakes in selection and application of acaricides which could provoke resistance to several molecules In spite of this context, the strawberry crop is increasing in Tungurahua however, a request on implementation of more sustainable strategies is on place.
Biology and ecology of trombidiid mites (Acari: Trombidioidea)
In this regard, a structured questionnaire 73 used to assess pesticide knowledge, attitudes and practices among strawberry growers i. According to the answers, farmers are able to recognize symptoms of mite feeding Fig. Without any exceptions, the interviewed farmers agreed that the only method known by them for pest control is using pesticides such as vertimec, new mectin abamectin , floramite bifenazate , sulphur wettable powder , amitraz amitraz and commercial visits mediated Fig. However, several of them said they did not remember a specific product.
Although, information about the mode of action of pesticides was not included in the questionnaire, it seems to be a fact that growers do not know by any chance the way these products work and how they could affect the possibility for resistance if not well employed. There is a worldwide tendency to use a large number of compounds with a different chemical structure and mode of action to control spider mites. According to Van Leeuwen et al. By much, insecticides and acaricides are still considered as a viable sometimes the only strategy in pest control in field crops 76 , therefore, more attention should be paid to resistance issue if more efficiency in pest management is desired.
Thus, actions such as education program for farmers about the consciously use of pesticides should be included mainly in South American countries where the use of pesticides is tremendously increasing.
The impact of phytophagous mites on yield and quality of strawberry crops mainly tetranychid and tarsonemid mites has been shown in several countries worldwide, including in South America. Although, several strategies have proved different levels of efficacy for population management, chemical control is by far one of the most preferred tactics by farmers not only in Latin America but worldwide, even though its detrimental effects are well known but unfortunately not well understood so far.
Some educational programs for farmers and even for the agricultural technician are required to promote the responsible and safe use of pesticides in strawberry production. In this regard, efforts from government and universities should be devoted to provide educational resources. This including pest identification, personal safety, safe storage and disposal of pesticides, pesticide drift and runoff prevention, threatened and endangered species protection, water quality protection and food safety , training programs and materials needed.
All of these would help pesticide applicators to achieve certification and subsequently to maintain the knowledge to make use of pesticides safely and effectively, thus ensuring a healthy and sustainable agriculture.
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Several tetranychid and tarsonemid mite species inflict severe damages to strawberries grown in field and in greenhouses, provoking important economic impact, thus they have been considered main pests in this crop. In South America, control of these mite pests has been based on chemical control. Unfortunately, most of the Ecuadorian farmers seem to be unfamiliarized with more ecologically sustainable strategies. Thus, in this review we intend to show how these alternative control methods, such as biological control, plant resistance and botanical pesticides would promote a safer way to manage pests for growers and environment.
Aguilar, H. Murillo, Agronomia Costarricense, Blanco-Portales, J. Munoz-Blanco and J. Caballero, The strawberry plant defense mechanism: A molecular review. Plant Cell Physiol. Matioli and A. Ott, Comunicata Scientiae, 4: Botton, U. Bernardi, T. Malausa, M. Garcia and D. Nava, Effects of azadirachtin on Tetranychus urticae Acari: Tetranychidae and its compatibility with predatory mites Acari: Phytoseiidae on strawberry. Pest Manage. Gutierrez and C. Fletchmann, Brill, Leiden, Boston, Koln, Pages: Cakmak, I.